CONTRA > CONVERSIONS > MSX2

Contra Encyclopedia home page

Contra main page

 

MSX2



 
Select a section:

Release Information
Overview
Stages
Arsenal
Opposition
Cheats, Assistance
Full Plot
Soundtrack
Variants
Regional Differences
Developmental Material
Technical Information
Trivia
Promotional Media

RELEASE INFORMATION

Title: 魂斗羅 (Contra)

Media/Formats: Cartridge

Developer: Konami

Publisher: NTSC-J: Konami

NTSC-U: Unreleased

PAL: Unreleased

Release: NTSC-J: May 26, 1989

NTSC-U: Unreleased

PAL: Unreleased

 
Top of page

OVERVIEW

The MSX2 conversion of Contra is based on the arcade original, but the division and order of its early levels are similar to that of the NES version. Developed relatively late into Contra’s tenure, this game is similar to the NES version in that they’re both significantly different from their source material.

The first major difference is that there is no scrolling in the levels; like the CPC version, each level is divided into screens that the player crosses from end to end; so the levels work through flip-screen based gameplay. The other major difference is that this version features several new, exclusive levels. This includes 2 more bases, another alien lair, volcanic areas (see below) and more vertical stages.

However, there are no new BGM’s to go with these exclusive levels. The hangar stage isn’t present and the base bosses are considered separate levels from the bases themselves. Overall, the common levels greatly differ in layout and are longer than the original. Another similarity with the NES version is the lack of a timer and map in the base stages; in addition, the border is similarly styled.

Another difference is that the player is given a lifebar, very uncommon to the Contra series. However, there are no continues; as such, the lifebar can be compared to lives, while the lives themselves can be compared to continues. Getting in contact with enemies removes more health than getting hit by their projectiles. The player does not lose their powerup weapon from losing health, only from losing lives. This version is strictly single player.

The powerup system is also different. Players shoot out containers embedded in the ground, yielding a gun symbol. Acquiring this opens a menu featuring a few weapons to select from (the weapons present varies with the symbols located throughout the game). There are also flying pods that yield a falcon icon. Acquiring these increases both the player movement and bullet speeds.

Powerup weapons include machine gun, fireball gun, laser and the MSX2-exclusive rear gun. This new gun works like the Normal Gun, but also fires bullets in the opposite direction to where the player aims. The rear gun becomes exceptionally useful in the later, exclusive stages (particularly, the vertical stages). The spread gun is not directly available during gameplay (see below).

The MSX2 version of Contra is considered mediocre to average by players. The complaints stem from its limitations and unnecessary extra levels. The game does not scroll and provides an unbalanced arsenal. The new levels are more or less padding that unjustifiably makes the game longer. They are highly repetitive, with the boss in most of them being a variation of the end of base stages: a large central target surrounded by gun turrets and/or other dangers.

Covers:

conmsx

 
Top of page

STAGES

Stage 1: Asphalt Jungle
Stage 2: 1st Underpass
Stage 3: Homicide Censor No. 1
Stage 4: Hell Fall
Stage 5: 2nd Underpass
Stage 6: Homicide Censor No. 2
Stage 7: Tundra Area
Stage 8: Energy Zone
Stage 9: Alien Zone
Stage 10: Cavern
Stage 11: 1st Under Maze
Stage 12: Homicide Censor No. 3
Stage 13: Magma Area
Stage 14: 2nd Under Maze
Stage 15: Homicide Censor No. 4
Stage 16: Underground Fall
Stage 17: Magma Area
Stage 18: Underground Fortress
Stage 19: Vicious Space

 
Top of page

ARSENAL

The powerup system of the MSX2 version is unique. Scattered throughout the levels are ground pods that throw out a gun icon when shot. Taking the icon opens a small window on-screen that lists guns to choose from. The choices vary with the location of the pod.

conmsxitem7

Separate from the guns, there are flying pods that drop a falcon icon when shot. These increase the player’s moving and bullet speed; taking multiple falcon icons gives an additive effect.

conmsxitem6

Normal Gun:

The player starts with this gun and, assuming they have a gun powerup, will revert to it when respawning after death. It can be fired at a fast rate by rapidly pressing the fire button.

Machine Gun:

Shoots a rapid stream of bullets, fired automatically. Interestingly, the firing rate can be increased by rapidly pressing the fire button.

Fireball Gun:

Shoots regular in a corkscrew trajectory. Can be difficult to use as a result of this, as well as its slow rate of fire. Inflicts slightly more damage than the regular bullets.

Laser Gun:

Shoots a long laser beam that causes high damage. Although it is the strongest gun, it has the slowest rate of fire.

Rear Gun:

Fires regular bullets in front of, as well as behind the player. This gun replaces the Spread Gun during regular play, even using its sound effect.

Power-Up Falcon:

conmsxitem6

Increases the player’s moving and bullet speed. Taking it multiple times gives an additive effect.

The following 2 guns are stored in the game data, but are inaccessible during regular play (ie, they’re dummied out). They are accessed by modifying data values.

Spread Gun:

Shoots 5 large bullets that fan out, with a high rate of fire. It even uses the Spread Gun’s sound effect. Useful for multiple targets and large groups of enemies at far range and inflicts heavy damage at close range.

Interestingly, it exhibits the same quirk as the Laser Gun from the arcade and NES versions of Contra. If the player fires while a spread of bullets is already on the screen, those bullets disappear and new bullets fire from the gun.

Claymore Gun:

Note that the name is a personal selection. Appears to shoot regular bullets. However, if the bullets don’t hit a target for a certain distance, they explode into bullets flying in 6 different directions. They do 6 times as much damage as a regular bullet if they hit an enemy before exploding. It uses the Spread Gun’s sound effect.

Credit to Game Kommander for the images presented.

 
Top of page

OPPOSITION

Most, if not all of the names provided here are unofficial. Due to the ambiguity of enemy names between regions, the lack of names for several of them and the absence of various documents, it is impractical to list the correct designations. Help is strongly encouraged and always appreciated to fill in these blanks. The Opposition section serves primarily to describe and depict the enemies for bookkeeping; thus, the content presented below hopefully satisfies this criterion.

Fodder Enemies, Objects

Jungle Foot Soldier:

conmsxene1

They predominantly run along sections of numerous stages. If the player is at the same altitude, they fire a shot. They also sometimes aim diagonally to shoot at the player if he is at a different altitude. They can often jump across platforms in an attempt to chase the player, though this sometimes results in them falling to their death.
Found in stages: 1,4

Smart Turret:

conmsxsmtu

Embedded in the ground, these turrets are able to fire in 8 directions, like the player. They actively seek out the player’s position.
Found in stages: 1,4,10,12,13,16,17,18

Ground Turret:

conmsxgrarctu

Installed on the ground, they constantly fire bullets in a slow interval. The bullet delays at the turret tip before launching.
Found in stages: 1,4

Base Rifle Foot Soldier:

conmsxene2

Runs across some corridor walls, stopping near the mid-line to actively aim and fire a shot at the player’s position before continuing to run off-screen.
Found in stages: 2,5,11,14

Base Turret:

conmsxbastu

Placed in various positions on various corridor walls. These turrets fire a bullet less than once per second. They actively aim at the player’s position.
Found in stages: 2,5,11,14

Base Sub-Core:

conmsxbassubco

Placed in various positions on corridor walls. The Base Sub-Cores (and Base Cores) are the goal of the corridors. These ones are found on all corridor walls that precede the one with the Base Core. All other opposition are optional; destroying these will clear the enemies present and disarm the electrical barrier to allow the player to proceed.
Found in stages: 2,5,11,14

Bowling Pin Mine:

conmsxrpg

Rolls along some corridor floors towards the player. They can be destroyed.
Found in stages: 2,5,11,14

Fire Ring:

conmsxfiring

Shot by Lone Inflammatory Eye Garumakiruma.
Found in stages: 3,15

Scuba Soldier:

conmsxene4

Hidden in the water, they occasionally emerge to fire a shell upwards. The shell splits into 3 smaller ones that drop back down to the ground. These enemies are vulnerable only when they emerge.
Found in stages: 4,7

Defense Soldier:

conmsxdefsyssold

They jump off platforms at either side of the screen and, upon landing, run in the direction towards the player (and off-screen).
Found in stages: 6

Bubble Dimer:

conmsxbubdimer

They move downwards, sluggishly moving horizontally towards the player’s position.
Found in stages: 6

Tundra Foot Soldier:

conmsxtundrafs

Functionally identical to the Jungle Foot Soldier; these enemies sport a different attire.
Found in stages: 7,8

Thrown Grenade:

conmsxthrowngren

Grenades are thrown either from the stage background or Grenadiers, likely from a hidden enemy. They rise in the air and fall straight down.
Found in stages: 7,16

Tundra Jet Pack Soldier:

conmsxjetps

They drop from either side of the High Speed Anti-Gravity Hovercraft and run to the left, despite wielding jet packs.
Found in stages: 7

Turret Soldier:

conmsxturrsold

A soldier who commandeers a large, hovering turret, firing a bullet approximately once every 1.5 seconds. Defeating this enemy leaves the turret, which serves no purpose, behind.
Found in stages: 7,8

Alien Zone Foot Soldier:

conmsxalfs

Functionally identical to the Jungle Foot Soldier; these enemies sport a different attire.
Found in stages: 9

Alien Fetus:

conmsxene9

Spat from the mouth of Emperor-Demon Dragon God Java and also appear shortly prior. These alien creatures fly across the screen. Some of them home in on the player, while others move in various patterns.
Found in stages: 9

Alien Wall Mouth:

conmsxene11

Alien mouths embedded in the walls. They spit out Alien Cotton Balls.
Found in stages: 9

Alien Cotton Ball:

conmsxcotbal

Spat out from Alien Wall Mouths. They move straight down a short distance, pause, and then move diagonally towards the player’s direction.
Found in stages: 9

Alien Face Hugger Egg:

conmsxene12

These alien eggs are found near Emperor-Demon Evil Heart Gomera Mosking. They hatch an unlimited number of Alien Face Huggers.
Found in stages: 9

Alien Face Hugger:

conmsxfh

Jumping out of Alien Face Hugger Eggs, these alien arachnids crawl along the ground and sometimes hover upwards as they move.
Found in stages: 9

Sentry Drone:

conmsxene13

A spherical, flying robot that viciously stalks and charges at the player. They are tricky to dodge.
Found in stages: 10,16

Cavern Foot Soldier:

conmsxcavernfs

Similar to the Jungle Foot Soldier, but sport a different attire and move and attack much more aggressively.
Found in stages: 10,16,18

Magma Foot Soldier:

conmsxmagmafs

Similar to the Jungle Foot Soldier, but sport a different attire and move much more aggressively.
Found in stages: 13,17

Mobile Turret Bot:

conmsxmobturbot

Found mostly below the player when they appear. These turrets are extremely aggressive and difficult to avoid; they quickly move left or right to align with the player (who is usually above them) and rapidly fires bullets straight upwards.
Found in stages: 16,18

Grenadier:

conmsxcavfs

Very aggressive enemy soldiers that move and jump quickly. They toss a grenade (Thrown Grenade) straight upwards, that falls back down.
Found in stages: 16

Magma Jet Pack Soldier:

conmsxmagmajpsold

These soldiers actually fly; they aggressively follow the player, changing altitudes to help do so. They also fire bullets occasionally.
Found in stages: 17

Fortress Triple Turret:

conmsxfortresstriptu

Found only on the boss screen of Stage 18, these turrets are functionally identical to the other The regular Triple Turret. These ones blink red instead of blue.
Found in stages: 19

Vicious Wall Mouth:

conmsxvicwallmth

Alien mouths embedded in the walls. They spit out Vicious Cotton Balls. These are functionally parallel to the Alien Wall Mouths.
Found in stages: 19

Vicious Cotton Ball:

conmsxviciouscotbal

Spat out from Vicious Wall Mouths. These are functionally identical to the Alien Cotton Balls.
Found in stages: 19

Vicious Face Hugger Egg:

conmsxviciousfhe

These alien eggs are scattered throughout the final stage and also near the Vital Alien Organ. They hatch an unlimited number of Vicious Face Huggers. These are functionally parallel to the Alien Face Hugger Eggs.
Found in stages: 19

Vicious Face Hugger:

conmsxviciousfh

Jumping out of Vicious Face Hugger Eggs, these enemies are functionally identical to the Alien Face Huggers.
Found in stages: 19

Mini-Bosses

High Speed Anti-Gravity Hovercraft:

conmsxene6

A small ship that floats in the air above the player and moves left and right randomly. From both its left and right sides, it unloads an infinite number of Tundra Jet Pack Soldiers. Additionally, the ship drops missiles from a ventral hatch.
Found in stages: 7

Heavy Armored Vehicle Sweeping Dogura:

conmsxene7

The player must battle 2 of these armored trucks consecutively. They fire short-range rounds that arc downwards at varying ranges. These trucks move back and forth, but gradually approach the player until the player is cornered. It is best to defeat these mini-bosses before that happens, since the battle will then be much more difficult.
Found in stages: 7

Emperor-Demon Dragon God Java:

conmsxene10

Fought near the start of Stage 9. Large xenomorph head that spits out Alien Fetuses.
Found in stages: 9

Bosses

Wall:

conmsxwall

Building entrance to the first Base stage. This defense bunker consists an open window out of which Jungle Foot Soldiers jump, dual Mortar Cannons at mid-level and the Wall Core at ground level. The Mortar Cannons frequently fire bombs. The Wall Core cannot be destroyed until the Dual Mortar Cannons are destroyed.
Found in stages: 1

Base Core:

conmsxbasco

In the Base stages, they are the primary goal, found on the center of the corridor wall immediately before a boss battle. In some of the later, MSX-exclusive stages, they serve as the stage boss and are usually surrounded by Smart Turrets.

They take more damage than Base Sub-Cores. All other opposition are optional. In the Base stages, destroying these will clear the enemies present and disarm the electrical barrier to allow the player to proceed to the boss battle that follows. In all other stages, destroying these clears the screen of all other enemies and completes the stage.
Found in stages: 2,5,10,11,14,16

Homicide Censor No. 1:

conmsxdefsys1

The boss battle that follows the first base. When first reached, the player is confronted by the first phase, consisting of Triple Turrets (TT) and Defense Cores (DC) in the following arrangement:

TT TT TT TT
DC DC DC DC

These components open briefly before closing for a few seconds, with the Triple Turrets opening up to fire 3 bullets in a spread formation. They’re vulnerable only when open. The Defense Cores are harmless. All components must be destroyed to activate phase 2.

conmsxloneye

The ultimate goal of this boss battle is destroying Lone Inflammatory Eye Garumakiruma, the second phase. This eye-shaped robot shifts left and right within the security screen, actively aiming and shooting destructible Fire Rings at the player.
Found in stages: 3

Shadow Beast Devil Statue Guromeides:

conmsxwatfalboss

Resting atop the waterfall, this building is the entrance to the second Base stage. At the mid-level, the Quintuple Turret is placed. This weapon, as its name implies, consists of 5 shielded turrets that occasionally fire 5 bullets that fan out. The exposed weapon takes damage, thus it is vulnerable only when it opens up.

The Quintuple Turret ultimately serves as a barrier to the Tower Core, located basally. Thus, destroying it renders the harmless core vulnerable to damage. It is the primary goal of this boss battle. Besides the tower, Jungle Foot Soldiers occasionally run across from either side of the ground.
Found in stages: 4

Homicide Censor No. 2:

conmsxdefsys2

The boss battle that follows the second base. When first reached, the player is confronted by the first phase, consisting of Triple Turrets (TT) and Defense Cores (DC) in the following arrangement:

TT
DC DC DC DC
TT

These components open briefly before closing for a few seconds, with the Triple Turrets opening up to fire 3 bullets in a spread formation. They’re vulnerable only when open. The Defense Cores are harmless. All components must be destroyed to activate phase 2.

In addition to the aforementioned defense components, an enemy type jumps off 2 platforms located on either side of the screen: Defense Soldier. They continue to spawn during phase 2.

conmsxene5

The ultimate goal of this boss battle is destroying Splitting Illusionary Ogre Godomuga, the second phase. It consists of a head-shaped robot that splits into 2 virtual images that separate to either end of the computer screen before retracting and merging. The head is vulnerable only when merged. Since the images separate very slowly, this boss is in the invulnerable phase most of the time. Both the merged form and each virtual image fire destructible Bubble Dimers.
Found in stages: 6

Helmet Demonic Titan Soldier Gorudea:

conmsxene8

Large, armored super-soldiers that are fought in 2 stages. They launch disc mines that fly to the left and slowly change altitude to match that of the player. He slowly walks back and forth.
Found in stages: 7,8

Emperor-Demon Evil Heart Gomera Mosking:

conmsxheart

Boss of the Alien Zone, an alien heart. The heart itself does not attack the player. The challenge comes from its defenses: several Alien Face Hugger Eggs (that spawn Alien Face Huggers) surround it and some Alien Wall Mouths are also present. All defenses are optional, but destroying at least some of them will make the battle easier.
Found in stages: 9

Homicide Censor No. 3:

conmsxdefsys3

The boss battle that follows the third base. The player is confronted by Triple Turrets (TT) and Defense Cores (DC) in the following arrangement:

DC DC DC DC
TT TT TT TT

Additionally, 2 Smart Turrets, one directly above the other, flank both sides of this arrangement of components.

This defense system is unique: only 1 Defense Core can be destroyed and it’s the primary goal of the boss battle. The rest of the Defense Cores are indestructible and all other components are optional. The primary Defense Core randomly changes between the 4 that are present, each time they open. Therefore, it can only be determined through trial-and-error.
Found in stages: 12

Magma Security Core:

conmsxmagmabasco

Functionally identical to the Base Core, these ones blink red instead of blue. They’re also surrounded by some Smart Turrets, in addition to Magma Gushers; again, those are optional. Destroying the Magma Security Core completes the stage.
Found in stages: 13,17

Homicide Censor No. 4:

conmsxdefsys4

The boss battle that follows the fourth base. When first reached, the player is confronted by the first phase, consisting of Triple Turrets in the following arrangement:

TT TT TT TT
TT TT TT TT

The Triple Turrets open briefly to fire 3 bullets in a spread formation before closing for a few seconds. They’re vulnerable only when open. All of them must be destroyed to activate phase 2.

conmsxloneye

The ultimate goal of this boss battle is destroying Lone Inflammatory Eye Garumakiruma, the second phase. This eye-shaped robot shifts left and right within the security screen, actively aiming and shooting destructible Fire Rings at the player.
Found in stages: 15

Vital Alien Organ:

conmsxvitalorg

Final boss of the game, this stationary, pulsing alien organ attempts to actively fire a constant stream of bullets at the player. In addition, Vicious Wall Mouths and Vicious Face Hugger Eggs help protect it.
Found in stages: 19

Other Dangers

Exposed Flame Pipe:

conmsxflampi

These pipes burst out a large beam of flames when approached. They’re the prominence of the Energy Zone.
Found in stages: 8

Magma Gusher:

conmsxmagmagush

Columns of lava shoot up in the air from unstable lava patches when the player approaches them.
Found in stages: 13,17

Death Pit:

conmsxdeathpit

As the name implies, falling into these kills the player. Some are deep pits that make for a very high fall and a usually unknown or inescapable landing area. Others contain a deadly surface or a pool of dangerous substances.
Found in stages: 13,17

Credit to Game Kommander for many of the images presented.

 
Top of page

CHEATS, ASSISTANCE

Cheats

The following cheats require the Konami Game Master II cheat cartridge.

Save/Load State: First, format the cartridge and disk SRAM. During gameplay, pause the game (F1). Press S to save state; press L to load state.

Glitches

Easy Final Boss: Due to the way the final boss is programmed, its bullets cannot reach the player if the player is directly below it. Thus, the player can safely stand below the alien organ and shoot upwards at it, making quick work of the boss battle.

 
Top of page

FULL PLOT

NTSC-J:
In 2631, a meteorite crashes near the Galuga Archipelago off the coast of New Zealand. Earth Marine Corps performs extensive investigations into this incident. By 2633, it is discovered that the meteorite is of alien origin, having brought alien entities with it during the crash. These aliens had survived and their plan to annihilate Earth, codenamed Armageddon, is uncovered. Galuga is compromised and fortified by the organization Red Falcon, consisting of assimilated humans and alien creatures.

The Contra elite soldier is deployed to thwart the organization. Although he succeeds, whether or not the alien threat is completely diffused is a possibility that must be investigated.

Characters

Bill Rizer (unofficial name) – protagonist; playable

Red Falcon – antagonist organization

 
Top of page

SOUNDTRACK

•Contra
•Battle In The Dense Jungle
•Fortress Maze 1
•Fortress Maze 2
•Bloody Sault
•Fortress In The Ice
•Fortress In The Fire
•Pulse Of The Shudder
•Triumphal Return 1
•Triumphal Return 2
•Game Over

 
Top of page

VARIANTS

There are currently no known variants of this conversion of Contra.

 
Top of page

REGIONAL DIFFERENCES

The MSX2 conversion of Contra was released only in Japan.

 
Top of page

DEVELOPMENTAL MATERIAL

There is currently no known developmental material to present.

 
Top of page

TECHNICAL INFORMATION

The MSX version features 2 guns that are dummied out. One of them is the spread gun and the other launches bullets that behave like claymore mines. If the bullets don’t hit a target for a certain distance, they explode into bullets flying in 6 different directions. They do 6 times as much damage as a regular bullet if they hit an enemy before exploding. These 2 guns can be accessed by using hacking tools or similar cheats.

Spread gun:

Claymore launcher:

Both of these guns use the spread gun’s sound effect.

 
Top of page

TRIVIA

Polar Exceptions:
Contra on the NES and on the MSX2 can be considered the black sheep of the ports. Whereas all other conversions follow the arcade original closely, these 2 versions deviate considerably from the original. The MSX2 version has several extra levels, while the NES version greatly changes the structure of the levels.

Harmless Borrowing:
There is no doubt that the sub-boss, the alien head (Emperor Demon Dragon God Java), rips off the Xenomorph from the film Alien.

csio2s

Similarly, the eggs surrounding the heart (Emperor-Demon Evil Heart Gomera Mosking) that constantly spawn alien arthropods are based on the Eggs from Aliens that spawn Face Huggers.

RobotsAliens In Disguise:
The fourth stage boss is likely inspired by the Transformers logo:

vvh8sl

x73njf

Not Gryzor:
A common misconception regarding the game’s title is that it is named Gryzor. This misconception is still widespread today. Take 魂斗羅 (the Japanese title for most Contra games) and translate it; Gryzor is a word that will not be produced upon translation. The Japanese version of Contra, including this MSX conversion, is simply called Contra.

The Biggest Misconception:
Another equally prevalent misconception involves the North American artwork for the cartridge, manual and box of NES Contra. The second character (Lance) is mistakenly assumed to be based on Sylvester Stallone. In actuality, both characters on the cover are modeled after different poses of one Arnold Schwarzenegger in his film, Predator.

Additionally, that cover art did not begin with the NES game. It originated as the template Bob Wakelin created for the Gryzor conversions by Ocean:

This cover art would later be re-used on the back of MSX2 Contra’s cover.

Breath of Fresh Volcanic Air:
The MSX2 version of Contra features 2 levels where the player progresses from right to left. This is in stark contrast to every other Contra game featuring side scrolling stages, where the player progresses from left to right. Strangely, both stages are called Magma Area.

Innovative Bosses:
For Contra games in general, the MSX version of Contra is the first in the series to have a boss below, where the player must aim downwards to attack. In one of the exclusive stages, the boss consists of a set of gun turrets surrounding a central target. The player must destroy the target (gun turrets are optional) from a platform above.

vcxbe354y

The submarine boss of the first stage makes Operation C the first standalone Contra game to have this distinction.



 
Top of page

PROMOTIONAL MEDIA

Posters And Ads

-Ads:

msxad

msxad2

msxad3

-Small ad from a fold-out pamphlet that prominently features Cosmic Wars:

conmsxkoncosmicwrs

-Small ad from a fold-out pamphlet that features a Ninja Turtle on the front:

conmsxninturt

Books

-Issue 12 of Japanese magazine Log In, featuring a visual guide for MSX Contra, including stage maps:

loginissueconmsxguideillustr

-Spanish MSX book Konami Book: The Legend Of Konami features an advertisement for the game:

konmsxbookspain

konmsxbookspain2

Interestingly, as seen in the second image, it is claimed that the game was expecting a European release; an approximate release date of April 1989 is also stated, which is a month before the actual release date.

 
Top of page

Contra main page

Contra Encyclopedia home page

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: